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About the Permanent Diaconate

Origins and History of the Diaconate

The Acts of the Apostles describes how, in the first century, the Church was faced with the challenge of responding to the needs of those who were at risk of being marginalised, either through culture or through material poverty.  Keeping in mind the example of Jesus, the Apostles selected and ordained a number of men specifically for this service.  For a number of centuries, deacons ministered in close co-operation with the bishops of the Church, assisting at the Eucharist, preaching the Gospel, and exercising a ministry of charity.  Gradually, in the Western Church, the functions of deacons were absorbed into the ministry of the priest, and the diaconate became a transitional order, for those on the way to priesthood.

Renewal

The Second Vatican Council envisaged a renewal of ministry, both lay and ordained, in the Church.  The Council’s Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium, explains that the lay faithful, by virtue of their Baptism, are commissioned to an active apostolate and insists that “every opportunity be given them so that, according to their abilities and the needs of the times, they may zealously participate in the saving work of the Church.”  The Second Vatican Council also proposed the restoration of the diaconate as a “distinct ministry of service” to be exercised “in communion with the bishop and his group of priests”.

In 2001 the Irish Episcopal Conference received permission from the Holy See to proceed with the restoration of the Permanent Diaconate in Ireland. In 2005 approval was received for the document The Permanent Diaconate: National Directory and Norms for Ireland and this document was subsequently published by the Irish Bishops. These norms were approved for a further five years in 2011.

In March 2009 the Bishops appointed a national training authority to approve and monitor formation for permanent deacons in this country. This body ensures that the preparation of candidates for ordination to the diaconate is in keeping with the expectations of the Church. It is chaired by Bishop Raymond Browne.

What do Permanent Deacons Do?

Many of the functions that deacons perform can also be carried out by members of the lay faithful.  The restoration of the diaconate is not intended in any sense to change that situation.  The idea is that some of those who already exercise these functions would be “strengthened with the grace of diaconal ordination” and in that way would be designated to be a visible public sign of the Christ the Servant in the community of the Church.

The first responsibility of the deacon is to be an effective visible sign of Christ who came to serve rather than to be served.  Although the ministry of the deacon may be exercised on a part-time basis, he remains at all times a deacon and he is called, in his life-style, to reflect this.

The ministry of the deacon is an expression of his being, as the documents say, an icon of Christ the servant.  The areas of ministry which may be entrusted to deacons fall under three general headings: AltarWord and Charity.  They include:

(i) Altar
• Assisting the priest at the celebration of the Eucharist
• Bringing the Eucharist to the sick at home and in hospitals
• The formation of altar servers and of acolytes
• Presiding at Exposition and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
• The celebration of Baptism
• Celebrating marriages (with the appropriate delegation)
• Presiding at funerals

(ii) Word
• Proclaiming the Gospel at the Liturgy
• Preaching the homily
• Participating in sacramental preparation programmes
• The formation of readers
• Facilitating study of and prayer with the scriptures

(iii) Charity
• Facilitating the development of lay ministry
• Visiting the sick
• Visiting prisoners
• Visiting the bereaved
• Youth ministry, and the facilitation of peer-ministry among young people
• Promoting awareness of the social teaching of the Church
• The promotion of justice and human rights
• The administration of Church property

A permanent deacon receives his mission from the Bishop, and will be assigned to work as a member of a team, normally under the leadership of a parish priest.  He is called to minister in close co-operation with priests and with members of the lay faithful who are entrusted with various ministries.  Collaborative ministry is already a reality in very many parishes, especially with the development of Parish Pastoral Councils, family-mass groups, baptism teams, bereavement support groups etc.  Deacons are not intended to replace lay ministers.  On the contrary, in many places, they play a key role in the development and co-ordination of  lay ministry.  Neither are deacons intended to be “mini-priests,” making up for a shortage of vocations.  The Vatican Council was quite clear that, alongside the diaconate, the role of the ordained priesthood must continue to be fostered, because without the priest there is no Eucharist and without the Eucharist there is no Church.

Who Is Eligible to Become a Deacon?

Candidates for the permanent diaconate may be married or unmarried.  The upper age limit for ordination is sixty years of age.

It is the bishop who, in the name of the Church, calls a man to ordination as deacon.  Any decision to call a man to the order of deacon must follow from a mature discernment.  In other words, it is a decision rooted in faith.  The bishop needs to satisfy himself that a man, who has already been called by God in the Sacrament of Baptism, is now called by God to ordained ministry, as a further expression of his baptismal vocation.

Married Candidates
The Church is concerned that there should be no potential for conflict between the responsibilities of ordained ministry and the need of a couple in the early years of their married life to devote their time and energy to maturing in their relationship and to caring for young children.  For that reason, a married man must have reached the age of thirty five before he can be ordained to the permanent diaconate.  He must also have the formal consent of his wife.

Unmarried Candidates
Unmarried candidates must have reached the age of twenty five before they can be ordained as permanent deacons.  In keeping with the tradition of the Church, those who are ordained as single men make a solemn promise of celibacy.

What Personal Qualities are Required?

A prospective candidate for the permanent diaconate must:

  • have a genuine sense of vocation to this calling.
  • be a baptized and confirmed man who is active in the practice of his Catholic faith.
  • be actively involved in the parish or charitable work and highly recommended by his parish priest and parishioners.
  • [if married…] have been married at least five years and live in a stable and valid marriage, enjoying the full support of his wife who will participate actively in the formation programme, and be willing to remain celibate if his wife precedes him in death.
  • [if single…] enjoy a stable, settled life, a history of healthy relationships, and be able and willing to accept celibacy, understanding the implications of this charism.
  • [if widowed…] have had at least two years to heal from the death of his wife.
  • possess the human, spiritual and intellectual capacity to participate fully in the formation programme.
  • possess natural gifts for ministry, demonstrate maturity and balance, enjoy good physical and mental health with no condition which would impede ministry and have no history of any significant compulsions or addictions.
  • be free of all force or pressure in making his application.
  • be able to sustain an adequate standard of living for himself and, in so far as it is applicable, for his family.
  • be able to give the time required for study and service without detriment to his family.
  • be willing to be subject to the child protection vetting procedures as required by Our Children our Church.
  • not belong to any organisation or engage in any work or professional activity that is, according to the norms of the Church and the prudent judgement of the Bishop, inconsistent with the diaconal ministry.
  • be free of all irregularities and impediments to Orders.
  • be an Irish citizen or, if a citizen of another country, be lawfully resident in Ireland for a period of not less than two years.

How do I know if I am Suited to the Permanent Diaconate?

Before he is formally accepted as a candidate for the permanent diaconate an aspirant is invited to participate in what is known as the propaedeutic period.  During this period, which lasts approximately one year, he engages in a process of discernment which is intended to help him to arrive at a better understanding of himself and of ministry in the Church, so as to be able to make an initial decision which is fully free and unconditioned by personal interests or external pressures of any sort.

The propaedeutic period incorporates the formal application process and, as such, it affords the Bishop the opportunity, together with his advisors, to arrive at some initial evaluation of the aspirant as a potential candidate for ordained ministry.  The focus of the propaedeutic period will be on the vocation of the candidate and, in the event that he is married, its implications for his family.  Those who are accepted into the propaedeutic period begin a year-long programme that focuses on spiritual and human formation, and on what it means to be a deacon. The programme includes five weekends focused on prayer, instruction and reflection, two days of reflection, and a retreat.  Because this is essentially a time of discernment, the applicant’s wife, if he is married, will be asked to take part in at least some of these events.

What Kind of Training is Provided?

Training for ordained ministry is usually referred to as formation, because it is more than just training for a job; it is about preparing for a way of life.  Following the propaedeutic period, candidates who are accepted into the formation programme will begin a three year period of preparation for ordained ministry, which includes academic study, spiritual, human and pastoral formation.

The overall purpose of the formation programme is to help each candidate to reach a mature understanding of his faith, and to develop the personal and pastoral skills which will enable him to share this faith with others through the exercise of a ministry of charity which also has a significant liturgical dimension.

Academic Formation

The academic dimension of the programme will include the study of Scripture, Dogmatic Theology (the faith of the Church), Moral Theology (the implications of faith for relationship and for action), Liturgy (how the Church prays as a community), Spirituality, Canon Law, and Ecclesiastical History, as well as relevant elements of philosophy.  Evaluation of the candidate from an academic point of view will take into account his performance in the classroom context, the satisfactory completion of regular assignments and the feedback from his tutor.  The fundamental courses at least will conclude with an examination and at the end of the three years there will be a comprehensive examination.

Pastoral Formation

Among the elements included in the pastoral formation programme will be:
• The care of the poor and the work of justice (including familiarity with and involvement in the work of the SVP and other agencies which give effect to the Church’s social concern).
• The pastoral care of prisoners and their families.
• The pastoral care of the sick at home and in hospital.
• Participation in the communal prayer and the liturgical life of the community.
• Participation in the building up of the community, through effective and appropriate involvement in small groups, committees, movements and voluntary bodies.
• Proclamation of the word of God in various pastoral contexts.
• The pastoral care of the bereaved.

While there will be formal workshops, much of the pastoral formation programme will take place in the parish, under the guidance and direction of a named priest.  It will be tailored to the individual, and will take account of the stage of formation which he has reached, and the ministries which he has received.  Provision will be made for structured reflection on pastoral action and experience.

Spiritual Formation

The spiritual formation of the future deacon will be integrated with his academic formation.  It will take into account his previous experience of spiritual life, and will seek to affirm and strengthen it.   He will be helped, through prayer, spiritual direction and practical experience to deepen his relationship with Christ, and to develop a spirituality which enables him to offer himself, as Christ did, in the service of his brothers and sisters, especially those who are most vulnerable.

Human Formation

The human formation element of the programme will include some scheduled workshops, but much of it will take place in the context of working together with other candidates, in pastoral placement, and in reflecting on these experiences with his formation director.

The aim of this human formation is to help the candidate to develop the personal skills which will enable him to:

  • balance the needs of his own family with the requirements of ministry,
  • develop and maintain appropriate pastoral relationships,
  • communicate and work constructively and effectively with others,
  • observe appropriate boundaries,
  • develop the kind of personal discipline which will enable him to establish ministerial priorities, and to care appropriately for his own well-being in body, mind and spirit.

The director of diaconal formation has overall responsibility for the formation programme, and it will be his responsibility in the final analysis, taking account of the evaluation of pastoral and academic tutors to make a recommendation to the Bishop regarding ordination and future ministry.  While spiritual direction is an integral element in the formation process, the relationship of the candidate with his spiritual director is a privileged one, and its confidentiality is fully respected.

How Would Diaconate Impinge on my Employment?

The diaconate is an active ministry, not an honorary position.  Being a deacon involves a serious level of commitment, both at the stage of preparation and after ordination.

As a general rule, deacons exercise a voluntary, part-time ministry, and amount of time given to this ministry will depend to some extent on the individual and family circumstances of the deacon concerned.  Some deacons, if they have taken early retirement or reduced their work commitments, may be able to offer a greater time commitment.  Deacons who exercise a part-time ministry are entitled to work in their chosen career to support themselves and their families.  It is important, however, that their employment is both practically and morally consistent with the exercise of ordained ministry.  It may occasionally happen that, alongside his voluntary service, the full-time employment of a deacon is within some agency or service of the Church.  Although he is, at all times, a deacon, a distinction needs to be made between his employment and his voluntary ministry, not least because he may be answerable to different people in respect of each.

How Do I Make an Application?

In the first instance, a man who is considering the possibility of offering himself for service as a deacon, should make contact with his parish priest (or chaplain in the case of someone who is working in a college, hospital etc).  Following initial discussion at local level, contact may be made with the Diocesan Director for the Permanent Diaconate.  An arrangement will be made to meet with him and, where applicable, with his wife, in order to explore any questions he / they may have, and to decide whether it would be appropriate for him to participate in the propaedeutic period.

During the initial enquiry stage, a recommendation will be sought from the man’s parish priest, or from a priest who has responsibility for some area of ministry in which the man is actively involved.

Anyone wishing to participate in the propaedeutic programme which begins in the Autumn, should make his initial enquiry no later than the end of June of that year.  During the propaedeutic period every effort will be made to accompany the aspirant on his journey of discernment, and to help him to make a mature decision as to whether he should apply to be accepted into the three year formation programme.  Acceptance into the propaedeutic programme is not, however, a guarantee of acceptance into formation, or of eventual ordination to the permanent diaconate.

Prospective applicants for the Permanent Diaconate may find it helpful to read The Permanent Diaconate: National Directory and Norms for Ireland, which has been published by Veritas, and which is also available on the website: www.catholicbishops.ie

Diocesan Contacts

Armagh
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Fr Brian White CC, Parochial House, Main St, Blackrock, Co. Louth
Tel: (042) 9322244
Email:roadbowler@hotmail.com

Dublin
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Fr John Gilligan, St Mary’s Parochial House, Saggart, Co Dublin
Tel: 087 4103239
Email: jgilligan@abhouse.org

Tuam
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Fr Stephen Farragher, Parochial House, Ballyhaunis, Co Mayo
Tel: (094) 9630006
Email: stephenfarragher@gmail.com

Achonry
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Very Rev Dermot Meehan PP, The Parochial House, Swinford, Co Mayo
Tel: 094-925 1790
Email: dtmeehan@hotmail.com

Ardagh and Clonmacnoise
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Rev Aidan Ryan PP. The Parochial House, Ballinahowan, Athlone, Co Westmeath
Tel: 090 6430124
Email: aidanfryan@eircom.net

Clogher
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Rt Rev Msgr Peter O’Reilly, 1 Darling Street, Enniskillen, Co Fermanagh BT74 7DP, Northern Ireland
Tel: 028-6632075 ext. 3
Email: pp@st-michaels.net

Cloyne
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Rev. William Bermingham, PP, The Parochial House, Blarney, Co. Cork
Tel: 021 4385105 / 087 6561048
Email: williambermingham@eircom.net

Cork and Ross
Director of Permanent Diaconate
Very Rev Canon Bertie O’Mahony, Parochial House, Model Farm Road, Cork
Tel: 021 4346940
E-mail: holyspiritparish@eircom.net

Director of Formation for the Permanent Diaconate
Rev Billy O’Sullivan, The Presbytery, Turners Cross, Cork
Tel: 021 4313103
Email: frbillyosullivan@gmail.com

Down and Connor
Director of Vocations
Very Rev. Kevin McGuckien
3 Hannahstown Hill,’ Belfast, BT17 0LT, Belfast Tel. 028 9061 4567
Email: kevinmcguckien@hotmail.com

Director of Formation for the Permanent Diaconate
Rev Edward McGee, St Malachy’s Seminary, 120 Cliftonville Road, Belfast BT14 6LA
Tel: 028 90268286
Email: e.mcgee@downandconnor.org

Dromore
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Deacon Frank Rice, 38-40 Hill Street, Newry, Co Down BT34 1AT I have a different address
Tel: 048-3026 2586
Email: ricefa@aol.com

Elphin
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Rev Dr Michael Duignan, St Mary’s, Sligo
Tel: 071 915 0106
Email: mgduignan@gmail.com

Ferns
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Denis P Lennon, 39 Beechlawn, Clonard, Wexford
Tel: 053 9124417
Email:denle@eircom.net

Kerry
Director of Permanent Diaconate
Rev Nicholas Flynn, Bishop’s House, Killarney, Co Kerry
Tel: 064 6631168
Email: diosec@dioceseofkerry.ie

Director of Formation for the Permanent Diaconate
Rev Eoin Mangan, The Presbytery, Knocknagoshel, Co Kerry
Tel: 087 2401201
Email: eoin@mangan.com

Kildare and Leighlin
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Fr Ruairi Ó Domhnaill, The Presbytery, Dublin Road, Carlow
Tel: 083 3343744
Email: ruairiodomhnaill@gmail.com

Kilmore
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Mgr Michael Cooke, The Parochial House, Belturbet, Co Cavan
Tel: 049 952 2109
Email: michaelcooke@eircom.net

Waterford and Lismore
Director of Permanent Diaconate and Director of Formation
Fr Patrick Fitzgerald, Parochial House, Lisduggan, Waterford
Tel: 051 372 257
Email: frpatfitzgerald@gmail.com